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Nicosia, also known as Lefkosha, has a rich and complex history that spans thousands of years. As the capital city of Cyprus, Lefkosha has been a center of political, cultural, and economic activity throughout various periods of civilization.

The earliest evidence of human habitation in the area dates back to the Bronze Age, with archaeological findings indicating the presence of settlements and tombs. Throughout the centuries, This City was influenced by numerous civilizations, including the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Ottomans.

During the Byzantine period, This City served as an important administrative and religious center. The city’s iconic landmarks, such as the Byzantine Walls and the Saint Sophia Cathedral, were constructed during this time.

In 1192, Lefkosha fell under the control of the Lusignan dynasty, a Frankish noble family. Under their rule, the city flourished, with the construction of impressive palaces, churches, and monasteries. The Gothic-style architecture, represented by structures like the Famagusta Gate and the St. Nicholas Church, still stands as a testament to this period.

In 1570, Lefkosha was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and remained under Ottoman rule for nearly three centuries. During this time, the city underwent significant changes, including the construction of mosques, Turkish baths, and markets. The Selimiye Mosque, formerly the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, exemplifies the blending of Byzantine and Ottoman architectural styles.

In 1878, This City came under British administration as part of the Cyprus Protectorate. The British made substantial infrastructural improvements in the city, including the introduction of modern transportation and utilities.

In more recent history, This City became divided in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. The Green Line, a buffer zone, separates the northern and southern parts of the city. The southern part, controlled by the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus, is predominantly Greek Cypriot, while the northern part, known as North Nicosia, is under the control of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

Today, Niicosia serves as the political, economic, and cultural hub of Cyprus. It retains its historical charm with well-preserved landmarks and old neighborhoods while embracing modern development. The city’s unique status as a divided capital adds to its complexity and serves as a constant reminder of the island’s political situation.


While the city is primarily urbanized, there are a few natural areas in and around Lefkoşa that allow visitors to experience the beauty of nature.

One of the prominent natural attractions in the vicinity of Lefkoşa is the Gönyeli Dam and Reservoir. Located just a short drive from the city, this reservoir offers a peaceful setting surrounded by hills and greenery. It serves as a popular spot for picnicking, fishing, and birdwatching. Visitors can enjoy the serene atmosphere while admiring the scenic views of the reservoir and its surrounding landscape.

Another notable natural area near Lefkoşa is the Geçitkale Salt Lake. Located to the northeast of the city, this salt lake is an important wetland habitat for various bird species, especially during the migration seasons. Bird enthusiasts can observe a diverse range of waterfowl and migratory birds in their natural habitat. The lake also provides a picturesque setting for nature walks and photography.

Additionally, Lefkoşa is in close proximity to the Kyrenia Mountain Range, which offers stunning natural beauty and opportunities for outdoor exploration. The mountain range is characterized by its rugged peaks, lush forests, and scenic trails. Hiking enthusiasts can embark on thrilling adventures, discovering hidden valleys, cascading waterfalls, and enjoying panoramic views of the surrounding landscape.

While Lefkoşa itself is mainly urban, its proximity to natural areas like the Gönyeli Dam and Reservoir, Geçitkale Salt Lake, and the Kyrenia Mountain Range provides residents and visitors with opportunities to immerse themselves in the natural splendor of Northern Cyprus. Whether it’s enjoying a serene reservoir, observing birdlife, or venturing into the mountains, Lefkoşa’s natural surroundings offer a chance to escape the city and reconnect with nature.

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